Monotonous Lark

Monotonous Lark / Mirafra passerina

Monotonous Lark

Here the details of the Monotonous Lark named bird below:

SCI Name:  Mirafra passerina
Protonym:  Mirafra passerina Ark.Zool. 19A no.1 p.24
Taxonomy:  Passeriformes / Alaudidae /
Taxonomy Code:  monlar2
Type Locality:  Mohapoani, Bechuanaland = Damaraland fide Grant.
Publish Year:  1926
IUCN Status:  


(Alaudidae; Ϯ Horsfield's Bush Lark M. javanica) Horsfield made great use of Javanese names, but this does not appear to be one of them (cf. Malay name Merfa for a babbler (see Malacopteron)). According to Agassiz 1842-1846, mirafra is from a native tongue. Gotch 1981, writes that the name is from L. mirus wonderful, and Afra African; the first part of this etymology may be correct, but although most forms occur in the Afrotropics Horsfield’s Bush Lark does not; "MIRAFRA ... The characters in which this genus differs from Alauda are a more robust, conical and arched bill, round nares nearly naked, and a proportionally short claw to the posterior toe. The sides of the beak, between the back (culmen) and cutting edges (tomia) are somewhat convex. In this character it has greater affinity to Fringilla than to Alauda, the bill of which is often subulate (as in Sylvia), while the nares are covered.  Mirafra, although it greatly resembles Calandra, differs from it in possessing the spurious remex, and in having the four instead of the three first remiges elongated  ...  Mirafra Javanica ...  Branjangan Javanis." (Horsfield 1821); "Mirafra Horsfield, 1821, Trans. Linn. Soc. London, 13, pt. 1, p. 159. Type, by monotypy, Mirafra javanica Horsfield." (Peters 1960, IX, 3).    
Var. Miraffra, Mirafa, Myrafra.   
Synon. Africorys, Amirafra, Anacorys, Brachonyx, Corypha, Croteoptera, Etoimus, Geocoraphus, Megalophonus, Neomirafra, Plocealauda, Spilocorydon.

Genus Mirafra Horsfield, 1821, bush lark (syn. Mirafra javanica).

(Cardinalidae; Indigo Bunting P. cyanea) L. passerinus  sparrow-like (i.e. sparrow-sized)  < passer, passeris  sparrow; "55. PASSERINE, Passerina.  Fringilla, Emberiza, Linn. Gm. Lath.  Bec entier, moins large que la tête, un peu fort, droit, rétréci vers le bout, à bords inférieurs, quelquefois, les supérieurs fléchis en dedans, à ouverture dirigée obliquement et en en bas; mandibule supérieure à palais aplati, épais, lisse. — Ongle postérieur quelquefois plus long que le pouce, un peu crochu, ou droit et subulé.  3 sections.   Esp. Ministre. — Ortolan de riz, — de neige, Buff." (Vieillot 1816); "Passerina Vieillot, 1816, Analyse, p. 30.  Type, by subsequent designation (G. R. Gray, 1840, List Genera Birds, ed. 1, p. 46), "Le Ministre" of Buffon = Tanagra cyanea Linnaeus." (Paynter in Peters, 1970, XIII, pp. 237-238).
Synon. Aurella, Coccoborus, Cyanospiza, Goniaphea, Guiraca, Spiza.
• (Passerellidae; syn. Ammospiza † Saltmarsh Sparrow A. caudacutus) "AMMODRAMUS, Swains.  Oriolus, Gm.  Fringilla, Wils.  Passerina, Vieill.  Spiza, Bonap.   A. caudacutus, (Gm.) SwainsWils. Am. Orn., pl. 34. f. 3." (G. Gray 1840); "Passerina "Vieill." G. Gray, 1840, List Genera Birds, p. 46 (nom. oblit.).  Type, by original designation, A. caudacutus Gm., i.e. Oriolus caudacutus Gmelin, 1788." (JAJ 2021).
• (Emberizidae; syn. Emberiza † Yellowhammer E. citrinella) "EMBERIZA, L.  Fringilla, L.  Passerina, Vieill.  Cynchramus, Boie.   E. citrinella, L., Pl. enl. 30. f. 1." (G. Gray 1840); "Passerina "Vieill." G. Gray, 1840, List Genera Birds, p. 47 (nom. oblit.).  Type, by original designation, Emberiza citrinella Linnaeus, 1758." (JAJ 2021).
• (Passerellidae; syn. Junco † Dark-eyed Junco J. hyemalis) "STRUTHUS, Bonap. nec Boie.  Emberiza, Gm.  Passerina, Vieill.   S. hyemalis, (Gm.) Bonap." (G. Gray 1840); "Passerina "Vieill." G. Gray, 1840, List Genera Birds, p. 46 (nom. oblit.).  Type, by original designation, S. hyemalis (Gm.), i.e. Fringilla hyemalis Linnaeus, 1758." (JAJ 2021).
• (Passerellidae; syn. Passerculus † Savannah Sparrow P. sandwichensis) "PASSERCULUS, Bonap.  Fringilla, Wils.  Zonotrichia, Jard.  Passerina, Vieill.  Cynchramus, Boie.   P. savanus, (Wils.) BonapWils. Am. Orn., pl. 34. f. 4.  P. savannarum, Vieill." (G. Gray 1840); "Passerina "Vieill." G. Gray, 1840, List Genera Birds, p. 46 (nom. oblit.).  Type, by original designation, P. savanus (Wils.) = Emberiza sandwichensis Gmelin, 1789." (JAJ 2021).
• (Calcariidae; syn. Plectrophenax Snow Bunting P. nivalis) "Genre PASSERINE, Passerina.  ...  Ce genre contient deux espèces qui ne sont que de passage en France.   1. PASSERINE DE NEIGE, Passerina nivalis.   ...   2. PASSERINE GRAND-MONTAIN, Emberiza lapponica" (Vieillot 1825); "Passerina Vieillot, 1825, Faune Française, Oiseaux, I, p. 85.  Type, by subsequent designation (G. Gray, 1840, List Genera Birds, p. 47), Emberiza nivalis Linnaeus, 1758." (JAJ 2021).
• (Passerellidae; syn. Spizella † Field Sparrow S. pusilla) "SPIZELLA, Bonap.  Fringilla, Wils.  Emberiza, Jard.  Passerina, Vieill.  Linaria, Boie.   S. pusilla, (Wils.) Bonap. Am. Orn., pl. 16. f. 2." (G. Gray 1840); "Passerina "Vieill." G. Gray, 1840, List Genera Birds, p. 46 (nom. oblit.).  Type, by original designation, Fringilla pusilla A. Wilson, 1810." (JAJ 2021).
• (Passerellidae; syn. Zonotrichia † White-crowned Sparrow Z. leucophrys) "ZONOTRICHIA, Swains.  Emberiza, Wils.  Spiza, Bonap.  Passerina, Vieill.   Z. leucophrys, (Wils.) SwainsWils. Am. Orn., pl. 31. f. 1." (G. Gray 1840); "Passerina "Vieill." G. Gray, 1840, List Genera Birds, p. 46 (nom. oblit.).  Type, by original designation, Z. leucophrys (Wils.), i.e. Emberiza leucophrys Forster, 1772." (JAJ 2021).

L. passerinus  sparrow-like (e.g. small)  < passer, passeris  sparrow (see passerinum).
● "92. COLUMBA.  ...  passerina.  22. C. rectricibus remigibusque obscurioribus, corpore purpurasecente, rostro pedibusque flavis.  Turtur minimus guttatus. Sloan. jam. 2. p. 305. t. 261. f. 3. Catesb. car. I. p. 26. t. 26.  Turtur minimus, alis maculosis. Raj. av. 184. n. 25.  Turtur barbadensis minimus. Raj. av. 62. n. 5. Will. orn. 135. t. 36.  Columba sylvestris minima brasiliensis. Raj. av. 62. n. 6.  Picuipinima. Marcgr. bras. 204.  Habitat in America inter tropicosAlæ extus tectricibus punctis s. maculis fuscis adspersæ." (Linnaeus 1758) (Columbina).
● ex “Borin” of Aldrovandus 1599-1603, Jonston 1650-1653, Ray 1713, and Willughby 1676, “Curruca minor” of Brisson 1760, “Passerinette” of d’Aubenton 1765-1781, pl. 579, fig. 2, and de Buffon 1770-1786, and “Passerine Warbler” of Latham 1783 (syn. Sylvia cantillans).
● ex “Passerine Fly-catcher” of Latham 1787 (unident.).